The project adopted a systemic approach to understanding fair and equitable collaboration. This involved examining enablers and inhibitors of participation in four key domains: research agenda-setting and governance; research design; research implementation and communication; and research uptake, adaptation and use for policy and practice (see Figure below). Within each of these domains we considered how participation was influenced by institutional structures and processes, social practices, subjective identities, material artefacts and discourses (see also iterative framework developed for the ESRC Seminar Series).